Corn pest decline may save farmers money
December 19, 2013
Populations of European corn borer (ECB), a major corn crop pest, have declined significantly in the eastern United States, according to Penn State researchers. The decline suggests that the use of genetically modified, ECB-resistant corn hybrids -- an expensive, yet effective, solution that has been widely adopted by farmers -- may now be unnecessary in some areas.
Researchers: New sustainable ag farmers need access, farm-management knowledge
December 18, 2013
On-farm internships and land-link programs are two important models for increasing the number of farmers in the sustainable-agriculture movement, according to researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Water research makes waves in annual graduate student sustainability challenge
December 13, 2013
A diverse team of judges has recognized an interdisciplinary team of graduate students as the grand prize winner of $10,000 in the Dow Sustainability Innovation Student Challenge Award (SISCA) at Penn State.
Penn State, Cornell partner on vegetable, small-fruit programs
December 4, 2013
Vegetable and small-fruit growers will have a chance to gain knowledge that can enhance their operations during a series of monthly, Web-based seminars that will kick off Dec. 18. Presented by Penn State Extension in collaboration with Cornell Cooperative Extension, the webinars will provide timely updates in vegetable and small-fruit production for extension educators, producers and industry representatives in Pennsylvania, New York and surrounding states.
In the case of wholesale food distributors, it's all about location
December 4, 2013
In all but the shortest supply chains, food travels through wholesale distribution centers on its way from farm to consumer, and the location of these distributors can have a big impact on the efficiency of a food system. Now, a new mathematical model can help business owners and policy makers determine the optimal locations for such distributors, thanks to a research team led by an engineer in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Companies could make the switch to wood power
December 4, 2013
Some companies could economically convert their operations to wood boilers for heat and power, according to a team of forestry researchers.
VIDEO: Bed Bug Technology in the Spotlight
November 25, 2013
Technology being developed by CAS researchers is featured in this Inside Science video.
Additive may make wine fine for a longer time
November 21, 2013
An additive may help curb a chemical reaction that causes wine to look, smell and taste funky, according to food scientists.
Penn State economists: Loss of middle-wage jobs widens income gap in Pa
November 19, 2013
From 2001 to 2011, the Pennsylvania workforce underwent a marked shift from higher-paying to lower-paying jobs, a trend that could have serious implications for the state's economy, according to a new report by economists in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Queen bee's honesty is the best policy for reproduction signals
November 14, 2013
Queen bees convey honest signals to worker bees about their reproductive status and quality, according to an international team of researchers, who say their findings may help to explain why honey bee populations are declining.
Entomologist uses ScholarSphere repository to preserve rare insect collection
November 7, 2013
A Penn State entomologist uses the ScholarSphere repository to preserve rare insect collections.
Professor leads project to breed beans resistant to climate stresses
November 6, 2013
With support from a $5 million grant from the U.S. Agency for International Development, an international team led by Jonathan Lynch, professor of plant nutrition in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences, will establish the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Climate-Resilient Beans. The project will employ novel techniques to accelerate breeding programs for common bean aimed at conferring traits that can increase yield under heat and drought stress.
Convert some lawn into meadow or prairie, expert advises
November 4, 2013
If you want to do something good for the environment, consider not mowing so much grass, advises an expert in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Diefenbach receives award for excellence in wildlife research
November 4, 2013
A professor in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences has been honored by The Wildlife Society for his wildlife research.
Industrialized agriculture brings change in Turkey
October 30, 2013
Small farmers learn to adapt to market forces.
Professor: Pennsylvania's forest cover remains stable at 59 percent
October 30, 2013
Despite continuing development, urban sprawl and changing land use, Pennsylvania's forest area has remained stable in recent decades, according to a forest scientist in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Project helps African youth become haymaking entrepreneurs
October 29, 2013
A project spearheaded by scientists in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences and Uganda's Makarere University is helping African youths establish businesses and generate income. And these young people, in turn, are providing services that can help farmers improve dairy nutrition and increase milk production.
Hen turkey study yielding reassuring information
October 25, 2013
What level of fall wild turkey harvest by hunters causes population declines? That's what researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences are learning midway through a five-year study of the birds.
Food scientist Kaylegian receives Nesbitt Faculty Development Award
October 18, 2013
Kerry Kaylegian, dairy foods research and extension associate and director of the Center for Food Manufacturing in the Department of Food Science, has been named recipient of the Arthur W. Nesbitt Faculty Program Development Award in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Turning biologists into programmers
October 16, 2013
Synthetic life could create real benefits.
Legislation may cause data deficit for researchers, small businesses
October 8, 2013
Small farms and businesses may be the unintended victims of legislation aimed at cutting the federal budget by eliminating certain sets of local and county-based economic data, according to a group of economists.
PBS video features CAS grad student
October 2, 2013
A recent PBS video on work being done by Penn State scientists features work being done by a team that includes Laura Radville, a graduate student in the Eissenstat Lab.
Government Shutdown Information
September 30, 2013
The Office of the Vice President for Research has provided a site with links to information on how various agencies would be affected in case of a federal government shutdown.
Adjusting bacteria in intestines may lead to obesity treatments
September 24, 2013
A drug that appears to target specific intestinal bacteria in the guts of mice may create a chain reaction that could eventually lead to new treatments for obesity and diabetes in humans, according to a team of researchers.
Research minimizes effects of federal produce standards on mushroom industry
September 23, 2013
Strict requirements on the use of animal manures in fresh produce production imposed by the new federal food-safety law threatened to adversely impact the mushroom industry, which relies on horse and poultry manure for a specialized growth substrate.
Grad researcher investigates the role of specialized bone marrow cells
September 23, 2013
When breast cancer spreads, the disease typically invades the long bones of the body, such as the femur and tibia. Inside these long bones, giant marrow cells known as megakaryocytes (or MKs) go into overdrive in the presence of cancer and may contribute to destructive bone loss and embolisms. "The breast cancer survival rate is about 90 percent when it's detected early but drops considerably lower once the cancer has spread to the bones," says graduate student Walter Jackson. There hasn't been enough research on how these specialized bone marrow cells affect the spread of cancer cells, in spite of the fact that many cancer patients die of thromboembolism, or blood clots, he notes. "It's important that we learn more about bone metastasis and how to slow it down."
Study leads to traction database of various sports shoes, field types
September 19, 2013
Athletes looking to maximize performance on the playing field sometimes seek footwear that provides the best traction. But it's important to balance the need for good traction with the risk of injury. Penn State's Center for Sports Surface Research has released the results of an extensive traction study that tested 30 types of athletic shoes on three types of turf playing surfaces.
A mixed blessing: Rose disease reducing invasive multiflora rose
September 17, 2013
Multiflora rose is one of the best -- or worst -- and most visible, examples of an invasive plant thriving in Pennsylvania's landscape. But for better or worse, a disease increasingly is infecting and killing the thick stands across the state.
Entomology Students and Faculty Receive Awards
September 13, 2013
Several students and faculty members have been recognized by the Entomological Society of America. Two others have recieved USDA-NIFA travel awards.
Data Commons connects researchers through data sharing
September 13, 2013
In order to promote open access to research data, many funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), require that research data generated by publicly-funded projects be made publicly available. In addition, some journals require authors to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers as a condition of publication. Researchers can now more easily comply with these policies by utilizing the services of Penn State’s Data Commons.
Researchers receive grants aimed at technology commercialization
September 12, 2013
Four research projects with high potential for technology commercialization have received grants through a Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences program designed to spur innovation. The college's Research Applications for Innovation Grants -- known as RAIN Grants -- provide financial support that enables researchers in the college to realize the commercial potential of ongoing research projects.
Pennsylvania-Australia collaboration focuses on controlling wild hogs
September 11, 2013
According to the latest estimates, Australia has more wild hogs than human beings, perhaps more than 23 million. No one is certain how many wild hogs roam Pennsylvania -- mostly escapees from commercial hog-hunting preserves and their offspring. But both commonwealths need to control and perhaps eliminate feral pigs, which are a highly destructive species, according to Theodore Alter, professor of agricultural, environmental and regional economics in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Entomology Faculty's Work Highlighted by redOrbit
September 11, 2013
A new paper in PNAS from Dr. Gary Felton's research group was spotlighted online by
Microbes help beetles defeat plant defenses
September 10, 2013
Some symbiotic bacteria living inside Colorado potato beetles can trick plants into reacting to a microbial attack rather than that of a chewing herbivore, according to a team of Penn State researchers who found that the beetles with bacteria were healthier and grew better.
VIDEO: NSF Hardwood Genomics 2013
September 9, 2013
YouTube video illustrating an NSF grant awarded to Dr. John Carlson, Department of Ecosystem Science and Management.
CAS Faculty Research Discussed in Discover Magazine
September 3, 2013
Discover Magazine article spotlighting the research of Dr. Victoria Braithwaite, of the Department of Ecosystem Science and Management.
Researchers track antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella from farm to fork
August 29, 2013
Continuing research on Salmonella may enable researchers to identify and track strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria as they evolve and spread, according to researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Heinemann honored by national engineering society
August 27, 2013
Paul Heinemann, professor of agricultural and biological engineering at Penn State, has been named a Fellow by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. The society recognized him "for his outstanding contributions in teaching, advising and administration, and for research in specialty crop production efficiency."
Multiple genes manage how people taste sweeteners
August 20, 2013
Genetics may play a role in how people's taste receptors send signals, leading to a wide spectrum of taste preferences, according to Penn State food scientists. These varied, genetically influenced responses may mean that food and drink companies will need a range of artificial sweeteners to accommodate different consumer tastes.
The Clearinghouse for Military Family Readiness and Obesity Prevention
August 15, 2013
Penn State’s Clearinghouse for Military Family Readiness was designed to enhance the health and well-being of our military families by supporting the efforts of professionals who support them.
Video: Penn State Inspiring Research -- The Roots Lab
August 9, 2013
The team working in the Roots Lab at Penn State, led by Jonathan Lynch, professor of plant nutrition, is studying what the rest of us don't see--the very important work going on underneath the ground that enables the growth of healthier, higher producing crops. Research is being conducted on five continents, and the results of that research include stronger crops of soybeans in China, the common bean in Latin America and corn in Africa.
New agricultural resource centers to be highlighted at Ag Progress Days
August 9, 2013
Three new agricultural resource centers funded in the recently passed Pennsylvania state budget will be unveiled to the public during Ag Progress Days on Aug. 13-15 at Rock Springs. The centers, a collaborative effort between Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences and the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, will address the hot button issues of food safety, animal care and plant health.
Ultraviolet flashes can create vitamin D-enriched mushrooms
August 5, 2013
Quick zaps of ultraviolet light can boost the vitamin D levels in mushrooms in seconds, turning the fungi into an even healthier food, according to Penn State food scientists.
Temperature alters population dynamics of common plant pests
August 2, 2013
Temperature-driven changes alter outbreak patterns of tea tortrix -- an insect pest -- and may shed light on how temperature influences whether insects emerge as cohesive cohorts or continuously, according to an international team of researchers. These findings have implications for both pest control and how climate change may alter infestations.
Aquatic playground can turn water tanks into fish schools
July 31, 2013
Raising fish in tanks that contain hiding places and other obstacles can make the fish both smarter and improve their chances of survival when they are released into the wild, according to an international team of researchers.
Dark chocolate lovers show tolerance for bitterness in ice cream
July 29, 2013
In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Now, a study by Penn State researchers has shown that some consumers may not need all the added sugars in order to enjoy one of America's favorite comfort foods: chocolate ice cream.
CAS Research Highlighted in new NIFA brochure
July 19, 2013
A recently published USDA NIFA brochure contains material on CAS research into fruit thinning technology.
Watching the grass grow
July 19, 2013
John Kaminski uses social media to teach turfgrass science and collaborate with colleagues around the world.
Avocado farmers face unique foe in fungal-farming beetle
July 18, 2013
Beetles with unusual "green thumbs" for growing fungi are threatening avocado crops and could transform into a more destructive pest, according to an international team of researchers.
Heard on Campus: Mark Brennan, UNESCO Chair
July 17, 2013
This is an excerpt of the keynote address given by Mark Brennan, UNESCO Chair and Penn State professor, at a two-day symposium held July 15-16 on Penn State's University Park campus.
Drought response identified in potential biofuel plant
July 17, 2013
Drought resistance is the key to large-scale production of Jatropha, a potential biofuel plant -- and an international group of scientists has identified the first step toward engineering a hardier variety.
Walter Jackson III, Ph.D. Candidate in IID, Received Award for Innovative Research
July 16, 2013
The Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences (VBS) Department and Huck Institutes’ Immunology and Infectious Diseases (IID) Program are proud to announce that doctoral candidate Walter Jackson III has received the 2013 Robert T. Simpson Graduate Award for Innovative Research. The Robert T. Simpson Graduate Award honors the legacy of renowned Penn State faculty member, Dr. Simpson, who passed away in 2004.
Whole chickens from farmers markets may have more pathogenic bacteria
July 11, 2013
Raw, whole chickens purchased from farmers markets throughout Pennsylvania contained significantly higher levels of bacteria that can cause foodborne illness compared to those purchased from grocery stores in the region, according to a small-scale study by researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Understanding bulls' gene-rich Y chromosomes may improve herd fertility
July 11, 2013
The Y chromosomes of cattle have more genes and are more active than the Y chromosomes of other primates, according to researchers. This discovery may help biologists better understand how cattle and other mammals evolved, as well as help animal breeders and farmers better maintain and enhance fertility in the cattle industry, said Wansheng Liu, associate professor of animal genomics, Penn State.
Professor brings classroom to the natural world
July 8, 2013
Matt Hurteau spends a lot of time climbing trees. The assistant professor in the Department of Ecosystems Science and Management in the College of Agricultural Sciences, joined Penn State in July 2011, filling an Earth Systems Ecologist position jointly funded by PSIEE and the college.
New state budget helps maintain ag research and extension programs
July 8, 2013
A 3.4 percent increase in funding for Penn State agricultural research and extension included in the newly passed 2013-14 state budget will help to maintain programs critical for Pennsylvania's agricultural industry and the consumers it serves, according to Barbara Christ, interim dean of the College of Agricultural Sciences.
UNESCO Chair symposium to focus on rural communities and youth
July 8, 2013
Mark Brennan, recently named by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization as the UNESCO Chair in Rural Community, Leadership, and Youth Development at Penn State, will launch his UNESCO Chair program at a symposium, "Shaping the Future of International Development," July 15-16 at Penn State's University Park campus.
'Citizen science' leads to new Pa. birding atlas
July 8, 2013
With the dedication of more than 2,000 volunteers, 52 authors and a number of trained ornithologists, geographic information specialists and other professionals, the Second Atlas of Breeding Birds in Pennsylvania was published in November by the Penn State University Press.
Researchers to focus on factors affecting forest regeneration
June 24, 2013
Researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences over the next several years will study multiple factors affecting forest regeneration in Pennsylvania.
Penn State among top 10 universities worldwide in agriculture and forestry
June 24, 2013
Penn State's agricultural and forestry programs rank in the top 10 worldwide, according to a recently released report.
Ailanthus tree's status as invasive species offers lesson in human interaction
June 24, 2013
An exotic tree species that changed from prized possession to forest management nightmare serves as a lesson in the unpredictability of non-native species mixing with human interactions, according to researchers.
Plant Pathology Department heads campus tour
June 20, 2013
hroughout the summer, the Department of Plant Pathology and Environmental Microbiology will be celebrating its 50-year anniversary with a number of special events and an exhibit, "Healthy Plants for a Healthy World: 50 Years of Plant Pathology at Penn State."
Rescuing Honey Bee Hives
June 18, 2013
Entomologists are exploring the causes of a massive die-off of the honey bee population, from viruses and mites to the role of pesticides on bee health and behavior.
Cocoa may help fight obesity-related inflammation
June 17, 2013
A few cups of hot cocoa may not only fight off the chill of a winter's day, but they could also help obese people better control inflammation-related diseases, such as diabetes, according to Penn State researchers.
PROSPER prevention programs dramatically cut substance abuse among teens
June 7, 2013
Prevention is often the best medicine, not only for physical health, but also public health, according to researchers at Penn State and Iowa State University.
Researchers develop a faster method to identify Salmonella strains
June 3, 2013
A method that may reduce by more than half the time it takes health officials to identify Salmonella strains has been developed by researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Mosquito behavior may be immune response, not parasite manipulation
May 23, 2013
Malaria-carrying mosquitos appear to be manipulated by the parasites they carry, but this manipulation may simply be part of the mosquitos’ immune response, according to Penn State entomologists.
Study suggests dairy herd water quality linked to milk production
May 23, 2013
A recently completed study of water supplies on Pennsylvania dairy farms found that about a quarter of those tested had at least one water-quality issue.
Study confirms U.S. amphibian populations declining at rapid rate
May 23, 2013
The first-ever estimate of how fast frogs, toads and salamanders in the United States are disappearing from their habitats reveals they are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate.
'Mooofins' carry food product-development team into national finals
May 23, 2013
The Penn State Product Development team, a group of students in the food science department, recently was name one of three finalists in the Dairy Research Institute New Product Competition.
Grants and Contracts Office Submits Milestone Form
May 14, 2013
The CAS Grants and Contracts office submitted the University's 1000th ePIAF form, earning a surprise visit and cake.
Center for Pollinator Research to Host Conference
May 13, 2013
The Center for Pollinator Research will be hosting the second International Conference on Pollinator Biology, Health, and Policy this August.
Changing cellulose-forming process may tap plants' biofuel potential
May 9, 2013
Changing the way a plant forms cellulose may lead to more efficient, less expensive biofuel production, according to Penn State engineers.
Number of foodborne illness cases largely unchanged in U.S.
May 9, 2013
Recently released reports about the frequency of foodborne illness -- commonly known as food poisoning -- show that the risks have not changed much in recent years, according to an expert in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences.
Mysterious insect to emerge in parts of Pennsylvania
May 9, 2013
One of the world's most mysterious insects is about to invade the skies over wooded areas in eastern Pennsylvania and other states, but an expert in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences say it's not a cause for alarm.
CAS Faculty Member Named AAI Public Policy Fellow
April 30, 2013
Dr. Surojit Sarkar, of the Department of Veterinary and Biological Sciences has been named a 2013-14 American Association of Immunologists Public Policy Fellow.
Food Safety Modernization Act means changes for producers, processors
April 26, 2013
Proposed new Food and Drug Administration regulations developed under the 2011 Food Safety Modernization Act, or FSMA, will affect how Pennsylvania farmers, processors and retailers operate.
Scientists develop research-based standard to reduce manure-pit deaths
April 22, 2013
In the wake of several manure-pit fatalities on mid-Atlantic farms in recent years, researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences have published a new, international standard to vent confined animal-manure storage facilities used at large livestock operations.
CAS Faculty Member Receives NSF CAREER Award
April 16, 2013
Congratulations to Dr. Howard Salis, of the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering.
NanoDays Science Café to look at bed bugs, nanotechnology
April 10, 2013
Nina Jenkins and Matt Thomas of Penn State's entomology department will host the NanoDays Science Café from 3:30 to 4:30 p.m. Thursday, April 11, at Zola New World Bistro, 324 W. College Ave., State College, Pa.
Entomologist receives Black Award for Excellence in Research
April 10, 2013
Matthew Thomas, professor of entomology in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences and Huck Scholar in Ecological Entomology, has been chosen to receive the 2012-13 Alex and Jessie C. Black Award for Excellence in Research.
Changes to fall turkey-hunting season urged to bolster research project
April 1, 2013
Wildlife ecology adjunct associate professor Duane Diefenbach is conducting research on hunter harvests of wild turkeys in fall seasons.
Ag Sciences faculty members to appear on PBS 'Nature'
March 28, 2013
Consuelo De Moraes, professor of entomology, and Mark Mescher, assistant professor of entomology will be featured during an episode of the PBS series "Nature" that will air in most markets at 8 p.m. on April 3.
State horticulture organizations fund Penn State research projects
March 28, 2013
New and ongoing tree-fruit research in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences received a boost with the recent awarding of funds totaling more than $182,000 by the State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania Apple Marketing Board.
Ag Sciences faculty members honored for international efforts
March 28, 2013
Two faculty members in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences are among five people honored by the University's Office of Global Programs with 2013 Spirit of Internationalization Awards.
John Hayes receives Buck Award in the Agricultural Sciences
March 28, 2013
John Hayes, assistant professor of food science in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences, has received The 2012 Roy C. Buck Faculty Award in the Agricultural Sciences for his article, "Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype."
Researcher suggests declaring a truce with our microbiological frenemies
March 28, 2013
Managing bacteria and other microorganisms in the body, rather than just fighting them, may be lead to better health and a stronger immune system, according to a Penn State biologist. ..
Deer dispersal research and chronic wasting disease
March 18, 2013
Research done in the College of Agricultural Sciences on dispersal of young white-tailed deer will inform efforts to manage the outbreak of chronic wasting disease in Pennsylvania and predict how chronic wasting disease will spread.
Alumnus creates first endowed professorship in food science
March 14, 2013
A distinguished researcher in the field of food microbiology has created the first endowed professorship in Penn State’s Department of Food Science in the College of Agricultural Sciences.
Farmers who commit totally to sell locally can make a profit
March 14, 2013
Farmers can make a profit selling their produce directly to local businesses, but they must not let possible new costs weaken their commitment to the new venture, according to an international team of researchers.
Keynote speakers named for Private Forest Landowners Conference
March 14, 2013
A well-known conservationist and a prominent ecologist will offer keynote addresses at Penn State's first statewide Private Forest Landowners Conference
Faculty Invention in Corn & Soybean Digest
February 27, 2013
A gallery article in Corn & Soybean digest this week highlights the cover crop interseeder designed by CAS faculty member Greg Roth.
Malaria infection risk influenced by daily temperature variations
February 22, 2013
Identifying areas of malarial infection risk depends more on daily temperature variation than on the average monthly temperatures, according to a team of researchers, who believe that their results may also apply to environmentally temperature-dependent organisms other than the malaria parasite.
Cattleman's event covers animal ID, beef consumer issues, sire selection
February 22, 2013
Animal identification and traceability, a new generation of beef consumers, and selecting sires for grass-fed beef production will be among topics covered at the upcoming Cattleman's College Conference.
Penn State weed scientist receives national honor
February 18, 2013
A professor in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences is among nearly two dozen individuals honored by the Weed Science Society of America for outstanding contributions to the field of weed science.
Microbes team up to boost plants' stress tolerance
February 18, 2013
While most farmers consider viruses and fungi potential threats to their crops, these microbes can help wild plants adapt to extreme conditions, according to a Penn State virologist.
Key to cleaner environment may be right beneath our feet
February 18, 2013
While many people recognize that clean water and air are signs of a healthy ecosystem, most do not realize that a critical part of the environment is right beneath their feet, according to a Penn State hydrologist. ..
INTAD Competitive Grant Winners Announced
February 5, 2013
Congratulations to Kaitlyn Butterbaugh and Hilary Cheesman Kessler for being the winners of the INTAD Competitive Grant Award Program.
Expert: Key to avoiding norovirus is frequent hand washing
February 1, 2013
A new strain of norovirus, known as GII.4 Sydney 2012, is making the rounds this winter, causing a significant number of acute outbreaks.
Applications now being accepted for the 2013 Dutch Gold Honey Scholarship
January 31, 2013
The Penn State Department of Entomology is seeking undergraduate student applicants for the Dutch Gold Honey Scholarship for honey bee research.