Q: Where can I buy monitoring supplies?
A: The Tree Fruit Production Guide lists a number of sources for monitoring supplies. (see Part 2)
Q: What type of traps do you recommend?
A: We have been using wing traps, but we have recently been
testing a new design that is as efficient and much less cumbersome. This new
design is a delta trap made of plastic for multi-year use if used for the same
species and stored by species in plastic bags to prevent cross-contamination.
The liners slide in to the bottom of the trap and can be quickly removed for
counting and removing the moths. Two designs and their suppliers are large
plastic delta traps, Scenturion, Inc., and Pherocon VI traps, Great Lakes IPM. .
Q: How do I go about trapping?
A: Trapping is a key to integrated pest management in tree fruits. An increasing number of Pennsylvania growers are trapping to determine both the pest density relative to threshold levels and the optimum treatment timing for that pest. Growers are finding new trap designs less cumbersome and more economically feasible than in the past. Some trapping uses are:
European apple sawfly. This pest has reached Adams County and has the potential to cause considerable injury. Unbaited white panels are used for this pest. The Tree Fruit Production Guide gives further information.
Oriental fruit moth. High injury throughout the east in apples in 1998 points to a possible continued threat by this species. Traps can be used for thresholds and timing. The Tree Fruit Production Guide gives further information.
Tufted apple bud moth. Wing traps can be used to determine if this pest is below threshold densities, especially outside of the primary production areas. The Tree Fruit Production Guide gives further information.
Q: How many traps do I need?
A: This answer depends on the purpose of the trapping. One trap placed near a known population can be used to determine a biofix. On the other hand, more than one trap may be needed to determine the actual density in a particular orchard block. Specific guidelines are given for several species in the Tree Fruit Production Guide. Some trapping is better than none. Trapping in a representative block over several years can provide valuable history on thresholds and trends over time.
Q: What is IPM?
A: In the simplest terms: “Integrated Pest Control is a pest management system that, in the context of the associated environment and the population dynamics of the pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible a manner as possible and maintains the pest population at levels below those causing economic injury.” (FAO 1975)
Q: How do Pennsylvania tree fruit growers practice IPM?
A: See Part 2 of the Tree Fruit Production Guide on "the IPM Approach"
Q: What references are available for small-scale fruit production?
A: Penn State offers the Fruit Production for the Home Gardener for growers with less than an acre and no pesticide license. You can order the guide from the Publications Distribution Center (PDC) - http://pubs.cas.psu.edu/contactus.asp for contact information.